SER AND ESTAR

Verbs "ser" and "estar" are always difficult to distinguish for non - native speakers because in English the verb "to be" means "ser" and "estar". But, the truth is that in Spanish they are not used in the same way. The verb "ser" always refers to something which will last forever, for example, "mi nombre es Manuel" (My name is Manuel), "Juan es muy alto" (John is very tall), that is, it is like that and you can't change it. It's a permanent situation. On the contrary, the verb "estar" always refers to a state, that is, a state which can change, for example, "Álvaro está enfadado" (Alvaro is angry). Alvaro is angry right now, but he won't be angry forever, or for example, "Juan está en Madrid", he is in Madrid these days, but it is not something fixed.


After this brief explanation, let's see how these verbs are formed grammatically in indicative present:

SER ESTAR

 

Yo soy

Tu eres

El / Ella es

Nosotros/as somos 

Vosotros/as sois 

Ellos / Ellas son


Yo estoy

Tu estás 

El / Ella está

Nosotros/as estamos

Vosotros/as estáis 

Ellos / Ellas están